Sign of the Prophet Quake

[613 - 622 CE]

by Jefferson Williams


Introduction     Textual Evidence     Archeoseismic Evidence     Tsunamogenic Evidence     Paleoseismic Evidence     Notes     Paleoclimate - Droughts     Footnotes     References


Introduction

As two early opponents of Muhammad embarked on a trip to Syria, they met a hermit. The hermit told of a prophet who would be sent to Arabia (?). The sign of the Prophets' arrival would be an earthquake in Syria which would bring "evil and disaster". Later in their trip, the travelers met a horseman who related that an earthquake struck Syria bringing "evil and disaster". This was apparently taken by the author(s) of this story as a sign that the Prophet being sent was Muhammad. Ambraseys (2009) dates the story to between 613 and 622 CE.

It should be mentioned that Syria at this time would have been Bilad al-Sham. Bilad al-Sham (analagous to Greater Syria) was a super province of the Rashudin, Umayyad, Abbassid, and Fatimid caliphates and included the southern Levant. Since the story indicates that the two travelers received their information while still in Arabia, the epicentral location is unknown. Hence, if this describes a real earthquake, the search for evidence should cover a wide area.

Islamic Syria ca. 640's
Map depicting the original junds (approximate boundaries), and the important towns and Arab tribes of Bilad al-Sham
in the 640s (from Wikipedia))

Textual Evidence

Ambraseys (2009) reports that As-Sayuti (1445-1505 CE) in his book Al-Khasais-ul-Kubra (4-5) copied a report from the book Dala'il al-Nubuwwah (The Signs of Prophethood) written by Al-Bayhaqi in the 11th century CE. Al-Bayhaqi related (on the authority of Marwan b. al-Hakam) the following about the beginning of a trip to Syria by Abu Sufyan and Umayya bin al-Salt - two early opponents of Muhammad.
we met a hermit who told us that a Prophet would be sent, the sign of which is that Syria has been shaken by earthquakes 24 times [alternative readings: 80 or 200 times] since Jesus son of Mary, and one earthquake remains, which will cause evil and disaster in Syria. When we reached Thaniyya [Midran, between Medina and Tabuk], we saw a horseman. We asked him where he came from and he replied, `Syria'. We asked him if anything had happened, and he said, `Yes, Syria has been affected by an earthquake, which has caused evil and disaster.'.
According to Ambraseys (2009), Abu Sufyan and Umayya bin al-Salt are thought to have made this journey some time between AD 613 and 622 CE.

Archeoseismic Evidence

Archeoseismic Evidence for this event is summarized below:

Location Status
Qasr Tilah possible
Bet Sh 'ean possible
Tall Hisban/Heshbon possible
Jerash/Gerasa needs investigation
Pella possible and needs investigation
Monastery of Khirbet es-Suyyagh possible I = IX
Caesarea needs investigation
Mount Nebo needs investigation
Ein Hanasiv possible - needs investigation
Giv’ati Junction possible
Avdat/Oboda possible
Mispe Shivta possible
Mezad Yeruham possible
Shivta possible I = VIII to IX epicenter a few tens of km. to the WSW or NE
Rehovot ba Negev possible
Saadon possible
Nessana possible
Mamphis possible - I => IX epicenter to the Southwest
Haluza possible - I = VIII to IX waves arrived on NE-SW axis probably from NE, epicenter a few tens of kilometers away


Each site will now be discussed separately.

Qasr Tilah

Qasr Tilah faulted birkeh
Broken Corner of the Birkeh at Qasr Tilah (photo by Jefferson Williams)


Haynes et al. (2006) examined paleoseismic and archeoseismic evidence related to damage to a late Byzantine—Early Umayyad birkeh (water reservoir) and aqueduct at Qasr Tilah and concluded that left lateral slip generated by several earthquakes cut through a corner of the reservoir and aqueduct creating displacement of the structures. They identified 4 seismic events which produced coseismic slip on the Wadi Arava fault and led to a lateral displacement of 2.2. +/- 0.5 m at the northwest corner of the reservoir (aka birkeh) and 1.6 +/- 0.4 m of the aqueduct. The first seismic event was dated to the 7th century. Haynes at al (2006) suggested it was caused by either the Sword in the Sky Quake (633/634 CE) or the Jordan Valley Quake of 659/660 AD - favoring the Jordan Valley Quake. There was a repair after this 7th century destruction indicating that the site was occupied when the earthquake struck. This suggests that the Sword in the Sky Quake struck the location since the location would likely have been occupied at the time - i.e. at the start of the Muslim conquest of the Levant. It is also possible that this location received damage from the Sign of the Prophet Quake. At some point the site was abandoned. Haynes et al (2006) noted that archeological evidence at the site indicates that it was abandoned and was not occupied past the Early Umayyad Period (661-700 CE). They also noted that
MacDonald (1992) [] collected some Byzantine and Umayyad surface potsherds at the site and documented ruins of Byzantine houses (village) along the fan surface of Wadi Tilah.
It is not known if the location was still occupied or only partially occupied when the Jordan Valley Quake struck in 659/660 CE. If the site was abandoned around the same time as the archeoseismic sites in the Negev (~640 CE ?), it may have been empty enough not to have been repaired if the Jordan Valley Quake caused further damage. Because of the repair, it it is unclear how much lateral slip was produced.

Archeoseismic evidence for the Sign of the Prophet Quake at Qasr Tilah is labeled as possible.



Qasr Tilah Trench Log A7
Figure 5 Schematic diagram of Trench A.7 north wall. Stratigraphic units are identified by lowercase letters. Faults are emphasized by heavy lines. Earthquakes are identified by Roman numerals, with IV as the oldest. Dashed lines indicate unexcavated portion of aqueduct floor. Haynes et al. (2006)


Qasr Tilah Trench Log A7 Stratigraphic Column Schematic
Figure 4 Schematic stratigraphic column of Trench A.7. Thicknesses of units are generalized from measurements of unit throughout the trench. Listed artifacts provide age control for constraining deposition and earthquake history in units where they were discovered. Age constraints come from radiocarbon data and typological dating of sherds. Haynes et al. (2006)


Bet Sh 'ean

Russell (1985) reported the following
Fitzgerald (1931:7) uncovered three Byzantine houses that had collapsed and burned in the early 7th century, sealing coins of Anastasius I, Justin II, Maurice Tiberius. and Phocas beneath their destruction debris. a temporal span ca. 491-610.

In the Byzantine monastery at Beth-shan, gold coins of Heraclius (610- 641) were sealed beneath similar collapse debris Fitzgerald (1939:2) .
Such damage could have also been the result of sacking by the Rashudin Army. Archeoseismic evidence at Bet Sh 'ean is labeled as possible.

Tall Hisban/Heshbon

Crushed Ceramics at Hesbon due to 7th century CE quake
Figure 16. Ceramic vessels crushed by fallen vault in Early
Islamic Room N.1. from Walker and Labianca (2003)


Walker and Labianca (2003:453-454) uncovered 7th century CE archeoseismic evidence which they attributed to the Jordan Valley Quake of 659/660 CE from an excavation of an Umayyad-period building in Field N of Tall Hisban. They report a badly broken hard packed yellowish clay floor which was pocketed in places by wall collapse and accompanied by crushed storage jars, basins, and cookware. Based on observed archeoseismic damage and the Earthquake Archaeological Effects Chart of Rodriguez-Pascua (2013:221-224), local intensity is estimated to VIII+ based on:
An excerpt from their article follows:
Two roughly square rooms, each approximately 4 x 4 meters wide and built against the inner face of the Hellenistic wall, occupied most of N.l and N.2. Masonry walls, four courses high, delineated the space. The original rooms were separated by what appears to have been an open air corridor; a door in the east wall of N. l and one in the west wall of N.2 allowed passage between the two rooms. The floors of these rooms (N.1: 18, N.2: 16) were made of a hard packed, yellowish clay, which was badly broken and pocketed in many places by wall collapse. Upper courses of the walls of the rooms had fallen onto the floor and crushed several large storage jars and basins and cookware (Fig. 16), dated in the field to the transitional Byzantine-Umayyad period. The only foundation trench identified (N.2: 25) yielded no pottery. The fill above these floors contained pottery that was late Umayyad and Abbasid in date. While it is not possible at this early stage of excavation to determine when this structure was first built, it was clearly occupied in the middle of the seventh century, suffered a catastrophic event, and was reoccupied (at some point) and used into the ninth century. Fallen architecture, crushed pottery, badly damaged floors that appeared to have "melted" around the fallen blocks, and wide and deep ash pits and lenses bare witness to a major conflagration. The most likely candidate for this is the recorded earthquake of 658/9, which was one of the most destructive in Jordan's history since the Roman period, rather than the Islamic conquests of the 630's (El-Isa 1985: 233).
As dating is no more precise than the 7th century CE, archeoseismic evidence at Tall Hisban is labeled as possible.

Pella

Walmsley (2007) attributes some archeoseismic destruction at Pella due to the Jordan Valley Quake although this date assignment seems tentative.
Excavations in the early 1980s identified six house units destroyed in the earthquake of 749. These houses represented the last phase in a long urban development that commenced with the complete redevelopment of living quarters on Pella's main mound in the first half of the sixth century (Watson 1992). The original arrangement consisted of four-metre wide gravelled streets set out on a formal grid, each street flanked by stone and mudbrick terrace-style houses two storeys high, prefaced in some places by shops. These streets, intended to serve local needs, were not equipped with colonnades or sidewalks. Although modified, the layout remained the same until an earthquake in 659-60 required a rebuilding of the quarter, in which the linear terrace houses were replaced by independent, self-contained units centred on one or more sizeable courtyards.
Walmsley (1982) discussed this in more detail noting that:
only in one trench (IVE) has the Sydney team excavated much below the A.D. 746/7 surface, producing evidence for at least three Byzantine and Umayyad architectural phases. Since an attempt to establish a detailed chronology for the whole Umayyad period on the basis of this one trench would be premature, the following account concentrates on the final phase in the life of urban Pella.

...

We turn now to a consideration of the layout and use of the buildings in Areas III and IV (figs 28-29 and end-plates 2-3). A dominant feature of Pella in the Byzantine and early Umayyad periods appears to have been streets with packed mud and pebble surfaces. One such street, 5 m wide, ran east-west through Area IV. From it, north and south, doorways gave access to dwellings, hence referred to as the North and South Buildings. But at some stage during the Umayyad period the street was cut by a wall which continued south to form the west wall of the South Building. Before this event it appears that this building had covered a considerably greater area; now to the west of the north-south Umayyad wall the earlier walls were razed level with the new and final occupation surface of a courtyard. Into this surface were dug lightly fired clay tabuns. Although the date of the demolition of the western sector of the South Building and of the construction of the north-south wall is uncertain, the slight build-up of de¬tritus on this surface points to a time not far removed from the final destruction of A.D. 746/7. Tentatively we ascribe these alterations to the period following the earthquake of A.D. 717.
The earthquake of 717 CE refers to an earthquake which Ambraseys (2009) and Guidoboni et. al. (1994) locate in Syria and Upper Mesopotamia. None of the sources mention specific localities except for a conflation mistake by Pseudo-Dionysius of Tellmahre. However, reports from Upper Mesopotamia suggests an epicenter far from Pella indicating that a closer earthquakeuake may have been responsible for this tentatively identified and dated archeoseismic evidence. Archeoseismic evidence at Pella is labeled as possible and needs further investigation.

Jerash/Gerasa

Although Ambraseys (2009) cites Russell (1985) as stating that there is archeoseismic evidence for the Sword in the Sky Quake in Jerash (aka Gerasa), no such statements can be found in Russell (1985). Since the Sign of the Prophet Quake is reported shortly before the Sword in the Sky Quake, archeoseismic evidence at Jerash is labeled as needs investigation.

Monastery of Khirbet es-Suyyagh

Taxel (2009: 186) reports damage, based on ceramic and numismatic finds, around the middle of the 7th century CE concluding that "it is highly likely that the observed damage and subsequent repairs in Khirbet es-Suyyagh were caused by one or more earthquakes." Damage descriptions follow:
Damaged architectural remains can be recognised throughout the site. Signs of destruction and nearly immediate rebuilding combined with absence of signs of man-made violent actives are typical earthquake-related features.

The area of the large courtyard (Fig. 2.1:8-10) had been completely rebuilt after a destructive event. An earlier construction phase, which is observed south of the centre of the courtyard (Fig. 2.1:9), is covered by a later floor. Fallen masonry and subsequent repairs were observed in the southern part of the apse of the church, with its inner face remaining asymmetric. Since the damage is observed close to the foundations of the church it seems that the damage had a pervasive affect on the entire structure. A section of about 10 m in the southern end of W33 seems also to have been rebuilt. Similarly, in W100 there is a warped contact in room 19, where two different styles of masonry meet but are misaligned.

Another type of damage appears in two broken door thresholds, that of the main gate and that of the small courtyard in the south of the monastery. The large, monolithic and nicely carved stones are placed in-situ but broken by a width wise crack into two pieces. Assuming the thresholds were carved from intact rocks without significant fractures, we can envision strong vertical acceleration, perhaps of the order of lg, which caused the fracturing. Such strong shaking is known based on modern earthquakes to occur either near the epicentre of strong earthquakes (of the order of magnitude 7 and above) or in places with strong local amplification of seismic waves.

Each of the damaged elements alone would not suffice to indicate an earthquake as the damaging agent. However, the occurrence of many such elements, the extensive repair and reconstruction of features without any sign of human violence and in short time, together with the frequent occurrence of earthquakes in the region supports the association of the damage to earthquake/s.
This suggests that the Jordan Valley Quake, the Sword in the Sky Quake and/or possibly even the Sign of the Prophet Quake damaged the site with the Jordan Valley Quake the most likely candidate. Archeoseismic evidence at the Monastery of Khirbet es-Suyyagh is labeled as possible . Seismic Intensity is estimated at IX (1 g).

Caesarea

Without citing a source, Ambraseys (2009) states that
stratigraphic analysis of the site of Caesarea Maritima shows a destruction level dating to c. AD 630 it is not certain whether this can attributed to an earthquake or to a Persian invasion.
Archeoseismic evidence at Caesarea is labeled as needs investigation.

Mount Nebo

Ambraseys (2009) notes that
Indeed, Russell remarks that it is impossible to ascertain the effects of this and the AD 632 (634) earthquake on the Mt Nebo monastery owing to the manner in which the excavations were conducted.
However Russell (1985) correlates archeoseismic destruction at Mount Nebo to the Mount Lebanon Thrust Quake of 551 CE and the Sabbatical Year Earthquake of 746/749.

July 9, 551 CE entry - p. 45

This earthquake also appears to have been responsible for the destruction and subsequent abandonment of the Town of Nebo (Saller and Bagatti 1949: 217, n. 2).
January 748 CE entry - p. 49

The final destruction of the basilica at Mt. Nebo also appears to correlate with this earthquake (Schneider 1950: 2-3),
Notes - p.54

At Mt. Nebo (Sailer 1941: 45-46) and Aereopolis (Zayadine 1971) in the region of ancient Moab, recovery after the 551 earthquake apparently did not occur until the end of the century. Related to this delayed recovery is the possibility that an influx of southeastern populations from decaying urban centers like Petra subsequent to the 551 earthquake was responsible for the intensified building during the late 6th and early 7th centuries in both Moab (Sailer 1941: 248) and the Negev (Kraemer 1958: 23. 28-29; Colt 1962: 21-22).
This archeoseismic evidence is labeled as needs investigation.

Ein Hanasiv

Karcz et. al. (1977) list archeoseismic evidence (oriented collapse, alignment of fallen masonry) in Ein Hanasiv in the 7th century AD based on Vitto (1975). Archeoseismic evidence at Ein Hanasiv is labeled as possible and needs investigation.

Giv’ati Junction

Baumgarten (2001) excavated a round pottery kiln at Giv' ati Junction dated to the 4th-7th century CE (Shmueli (2013)). Langgut et al (2015) report that four fired Late Roman Amphora (similar to those at Yavne) "were found inside the kiln’s collapsed firing chamber" covered by a thick layer of aeolian sand. Langgut et al (2015) noted that while "the excavator suggested that the kiln was destroyed during operation, possibly due to some technical fault, and was consequently abandoned (Baumgarten 2001)", they believe an earthquake should also be considered as a cause of destruction.

(Shmueli (2013)) excavated Stratum III in a rectangular building (L109, L119) at Giv'ti Junction in 2011 where, on the floor, they found three Gaza jars which were set upside down (Fig. 4) and broken. A fourth jar was found upright but also broken. Based on numismatic finds, they dated the beginning of the settlement to the fourth or fifth century CE. Construction and use of the rectangular building was dated to the fifth to seventh centuries CE. In the seventh century the installation and building went out of use.

Archeoseismic evdience at Giv’ati Junction is labeled as possible.

Avdat/Oboda

Avdat Acropolis
Aerial View of Avdat Acropolis - from Wikipedia


In surveys conducted in 1994 and 1996, Korjenkov (1999) identified and examined seismic features such as
Korjenkov (1999) identified a number of seismic features at Avdat and was able to produce an estimate of local Intensity and other information as follows : Unfortunately, this estimate is derived from multiple earthquakes. Korjenkov estimated that three seismic events created the features and that the first seismic event was the southern Cyril Quake of 363 CE and and the last event was the Sword in the Sky Quake of 634 CE. The middle event could be any of the following: Abundant archeoseismic evidence at Avdat indicates more than one seismic event which unfortunately are not dated precisely. Acheoseismic evidence for the Sign of the Prophet Quake is labeled as possible.

Mispe Shivta

Erickson-Gini (personal correspondence, 2021) relates that this site in the Negev suffered seismic damage in the 7th century CE - sometime after 620 CE.

Mezad Yeruham

Erickson-Gini (personal correspondence, 2021) relates that this site in the Negev suffered seismic damage in the 7th century CE - sometime after 620 CE.

Shivta

Korzhenkov and Mazor (1999a) provided the following conclusions from a study of archeoseismic evidence at Shivta.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

  1. The ancient city of Shivta is situated on flat low-land, built of massive carbonate bedrock. Hence, no site-effects are expected to have affected the patterns of seismic damage.
  2. Walls of buildings and agricultural fences trending SE (130°±15°) reveal collapse in a preferential direction towards the SW (Fig. 8), whereas walls oriented NE (40°±20°) reveal random collapse.
  3. This key observation indicates that the seismic waves arrived either from the SW (in the case of a compression wave), or from the NE, if the collapse happened in an extensional quadrangle (Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999a). In any case, the SE and NW directions of seismic wave propagation can be excluded.
  4. Rotations of blocks are observed at the Shivta ruins to be clockwise at walls trending NE (40°-50°), and counterclockwise at walls trending SE (115°-130°), as shown in Fig. 6c. Such rotations could be caused only by push movements by compression waves. Thus, the seismic waves arrived from the SW.
  5. The Shivta ruins disclose two main perpendicular directions of walls: NE (30°-60°) and SE (120°-150°), as can be seen in Fig. lc. Hence, all the buildings of the Byzantine city can be modeled via a "representative room" depicted in Fig. 16. Three possible scenarios warrant discussion: (a) seismic waves arrived parallel to the NE-trending walls (Fig. 16a) — the shear stresses along the walls would be minimal, and hence no rotation would be caused, and only collapse of NW walls would be systematic; (b) seismic waves arrived from the west, i.e., along a line of the bisector between the wall directions—both NE and SE trending walls would reveal oriented collapse to the NW and SW sides respectively; walls with a NE trend would reveal clockwise rotation, and walls with a SE trend would reveal a more or less equal number of counterclockwise rotations; (c) seismic waves arrived from the WSW, i.e., at a different angle to each of the wall directions — the SE walls would manifest systematic collapse generally toward the SW, whereas the NE walls would show random collapse; rotations of elements of walls trending NE would be clockwise, whereas rotations of stones of the SE-trending walls would be counter-clockwise. The field observations fit this solution (c).
  6. A few hundred individual observations, made at almost one hundred locations at the ancient city of Shivta, revealed the 19 types of damage patterns reported above. Part of these observations are useful in determining the axis along which the seismic waves propagated (WSW—ENE), other observations point out that the epicenter was located WSW of the city, and yet another group of observations points to an intensity of I= 8-9 (MSK-64 scale) of the earthquake that destroyed the Byzantine city in the 7th century.
  7. The distance of the epicenter of the earthquake that destroyed Byzantine Shivta can be estimated from the following boundary conditions and considerations: (a) the systematic pattern of destruction indicates dominance of horizontal seismic movements, which in turn rules out the possibility that the hypocenter was beneath the city (i.e., Shivta was not at site A of Fig. 17); (b) on the other hand, the dominance of a horizontal component of the seismic movements implies that the epicenter was at a distance that at least equaled the depth of the hypocenter (i.e., Shivta was at site B of Fig. 17); (c) the intensity I = 8-9 (MSK-64 scale) limits the distance of the epicenter probably to less that 30 km, a conclusion that has to be checked by data from more sites from the Negev, applying the "triangulation method".
  8. An attempt to locate the epicenter of the post-Byzantine earthquake at Shivta is made by applying the reconstructed WSW direction of the epicenter, and the concluded epicenter distance of a few tens of kilometers. These boundary conditions were projected on the geological map of Israel: the concluded direction of the epicenter crosses the Zin fault at a distance of 10 km, and the adjacent Nafha fault crosses with the direction of the concluded epicenter at a distance of 50 km. In any case, the results clearly point out that the epicenter was in the Negev highlands and not in the Dead Sea Rift Valley.
  9. The seismic damage patterns described so far were observed on buildings built in the Byzantine period and in secondary walls added later on, leading to the conclusion that at least two earthquakes damaged the Byzantine and post-Byzantine constructions.
  10. The described variety of seismic damage patterns provides tools to establish certain characteristics of the involved earthquakes, e.g., seismic intensity, axis of seismic waves propagation, and in the case of systematic rotation, also the specific direction of the epicenter. In a more advanced stage of the archeoseismological study, the investigations in individual sites can be put together into a regional picture that provides more definite answers on the nature of the studied earthquakes. For example, the Negev data from several ancient ruin centers may be compiled, e.g., Mamshit, Avdat, Rehovot, Haluza, Hurvat Sa'adon, Shivta, and Nizzana (Fig. 1). In other words, the triangulation approach is recommended (Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999a,b).
  11. The common descriptions of damage patterns typifying different earthquake intensities are based on the inventory of modern buildings. The present work brings up additional damage patterns observed in ancient architectural complexes, e.g., damage pattern of stone arches, systematic tilt, collapse and rotation of stone building elements, the distance to which collapse debris is thrown away from the respective foundation, as well as preferential collapse of colonnades observed in many published case studies.
  12. The described archeoseismological study has modern applications in regard to specifications of seismic safety to be taken into account in new constructions in the Negev highlands.
  13. Finally, the described archeoseismological work lends itself to inter-regional and international collaboration in the construction of a seismic archive that goes back thousands of years.
Erickson-Gini (personal correspondence, 2021) relates that this site in the Negev suffered seismic damage in the 7th century CE - sometime after 620 CE. Archeoseismic evidence at this location for the Sign of the Prophet Quake is labeled as possible.

Rehovot ba Negev

Tilted Walls at Rehobot ba Negev
Fig. 5 An 18°-tilt and a collapse of the western wall westward at the SW corner of the western yard (field station 4).
Opening between two perpendicular walls is shown by a double arrow, and a through-going fissure (joint) cuts three adjacent
stones in succession (shown by three white arrows)
Khorzhenkov and Mazor (2014)


Erickson-Gini (personal correspondence, 2021) relates that this site in the Negev suffered seismic damage in the 7th century CE - sometime after 620 CE.

Tsafrir (1988: 26) excavated the Northern Church (aka the Pilgrim Church) of Rehovot ba Negev and came to the following conclusions regarding its initial construction :
A clear terminus ante quem for the building of the church is given by a burial inscription (Ins. 2) dated to the month Apellaios 383, which falls, according to the era of the Provincia Arabia, in November- December 488 C.E. The church probably was erected in the second half of the fifth century. (See below the subsequent general discussion of the triapsidal basilicas beginning on p. 47.). Although it is clear that several parts of the complex were built later than the main hall, such as the northern chapel (see 111. 1 15), there is no doubt that the entire complex was constructed within the same few year.
Later on he noted that
A date of approximately 460-470 for the building activity therefore seems reasonable, although the calculation remains hypothetical.
After initial construction, additional architectural elements were added; foremost among them a a revetment or support wall which is described and discussed below by Tsafrir (1988: 27).
The most important architectural addition was the talus, or sloping revetment, that was built around the walls of the church from the outside to prevent their collapse. Such revetments were common in the Negev. They supported the walls of churches as well as of private houses. They are found, for example, around the walls of St. Catherine's monastery in Sinai. At Rehovot such walls may have been erected following an earthquake, but more probably it was necessary to reinforce them just because of poor quality masonry. To explain these retaining walls as having created a military defense post (as has been done in the case of the northern church at Shivta) is awkward.
Khorzhenkov and Mazor (2014: 84) identified what they believed were three (or more) earthquakes which had expressions in the walls of the northern church. The first two earthquakes struck after construction of the church around 465 CE and before the site was abandoned by its Christian inhabitants around 640 CE (when the Byzantine Empire permanently lost power in the area and could no longer support these peripheral outposts). A later earthquake struck during the Early Arab period - after ~640 CE.
The existence of revetment walls, supporting the southern wall of the Church from the south, indicates that the southern wall’s tilt occurred during the first of the Late Roman earthquakes. It seems that the southern wall began to tilt northward inside the building during the Early Arab earthquakes; additional evidence for this is the shift northwards of the upper part of the revetment wall. Stones of the perpendicular eastern wall are cracked in the small room marked on the plan. Nevertheless, this wall is better preserved (it is much higher) than the main southern wall of the North Church. This indicates that the seismic shocks during both earthquakes acted perpendicular to the main Church wall: it had freedom of oscillation and was significantly destroyed. The small eastern wall, oriented parallel to the effect of the seismic movements, withstood the seismic oscillations better, although many of its stones were significantly damaged. The whole northern wall of the Church (field station 12 in fig. 3) has a significant tilt to the south (figs. 8 a. b).
Khorzhenkov and Mazor (2014:84) discussed the two late Byzantine quakes (between 465 CE and 640 CE) further
The destruction event (an earthquake), which deformed the original wall, occurred before the decline of the Byzantine Empire. There was then another seismic event which led to the destruction of the revetment wall itself. The last event was probably an end of ›civilized‹ life here.
This suggests that the Late Byzantine earthquakes that could have struck Rehovot ba Negev could include the following

Archeoseisimic evidence at this location for the Sign of the Prophet Quake is labeled as possible.

Saadon

Erickson-Gini (personal correspondence, 2021) relates that this site in the Negev suffered seismic damage in the 7th century CE - sometime after 620 CE.

Nessana

Erickson-Gini (personal correspondence, 2021) relates that this site in the Negev suffered seismic damage in the 7th century CE - sometime after 620 CE.

In the New Encyclopedia of Archeological Excavations in the Holy Land Urman related the following regarding archeoseismic evidence form around this time:
Settlement at the site reached its highest point in the seventh century CE. The Muslim conquest of the area apparently did not harm Nessana’s Christian population. On the contrary, the largest church discovered at the site—the “Central” Church in the lower town (area F)—was built in the late seventh or early eighth century. It continued to function without interruption during the eighth century, and only at the end of that century, or early in the ninth century, did it pass into Muslim hands. Incidentally, there is no clear indication of a violent Muslim conquest of Nessana during the seventh and eighth centuries. While it is true that some of the residential buildings uncovered in the new excavations contained evidence of structural changes dated to those centuries, such as blocked doorways and the construction of new floor levels (in areas B, C, and R), it has not yet been determined whether these changes were a consequence of earthquakes in the region or were motivated by other circumstances. Nevertheless, the copious amounts of sherds and glass fragments, including luxury items recovered from these houses, clearly indicate that the economic status of Nessana’s population remained stable under Muslim rule.
Archeoseismic evidence at Nessana is labeled as possible.

Mamshit (aka Mampsis)

Tilted Wall in Mamshit
Fig.12 b. Tilting westward of upper stones of the N-S (174 degrees) trending east wall in a room
south of the main premises of the West Church – stone A has a dip of 61 degrees and stone B has a dip
of 74 degrees. "Seismic push arrived from SW"
from Korzhenkov and Mazor (2003)


Korzhenkov and Mazor (2003) estimated that an earthquake struck Mamshit in the 7th century. Although they also saw evidence that a late 3rd or early 4th century earthquake also struck the site, they found statistically meaningful directional preferences in the damage patterns that allowed them to separate the effects of the two different quakes. They estimated that the epicenter of the late 7th century earthquake was to the southwest of Mamshit and the minimum local intensity was IX.

They report that the percentage of collapsed buildings could be well estimated as the ruins were left untouched. Their estimates were that practically all of the buildings in Mamphis were damaged and more than 50% were destroyed in this earthquake. Almost no second floor structures survived without severe damage.

Erickson-Gini (personal correspondence, 2021) relates that this site in the Negev suffered seismic damage in the 7th century CE - sometime after 620 CE. Because this damage was dated to the 7th century, archeoseismic evidence for the Sign of the Prophet earthquake is labeled as possible.

Haluza

Shifted Wall at Haluza
Fig. 15 Haluza. Shift of upper stone row of the SW part of the Theater wall
from Korzhenkov and Mazor (2005)


Korzhenkov and Mazor (2005) summarized archeoseismic evidence for a second destructive earthquake at Haluza as follows:
The Early Arab – "Second" Ancient Earthquake

Negev (1976) suggested that a strong earthquake caused the final abandonment of Haluza. He summed up his observations at one of the excavated courtyards:
Voussoirs of the arches and extremely long roof slabs were discovered in the debris, just above the floor. It seems that either the destruction of the house occurred for a very short time after its abandonment or the house had to be abandoned because of its destruction by an earthquake.
The date of destruction could be 632/3 A.D., i.e. at the time the Byzantine city of Avdat was destroyed and other ancient towns of the Negev desert were ruined. However, archaeological data demonstrate that occupation of the site continued until at least the first half of the 8th cent. A.D.. So, most probably, the date of destruction by an earthquake was 749 A.D., as the best match with the earthquake catalog of Amiran et al (1994)[1]

Joints crossing several adjacent stones (e. g. Fig. 4) indicate destruction by a high-energy earthquake, as the energy was sufficient to overcome the stress-shadow of the empty space between the building stones.

Tilts of the walls (Fig. 10), fallen columns (Fig. 13), shifted collapse of an arch (Fig. 11), shift of a stone row of the wall (Fig. 15) – all these observations disclose that the destructive seismic waves arrived along a NE-SW axis (~40º), most probably from NE.

Although all of the buildings in the city were well built and had one or two floors, all of them were severely damaged by an earthquake. The significant seismic deformations observed in the buildings indicate a local seismic intensity of at least I = VIII–IX (MSK Scale). This requires a strong shock arriving from a nearby epicenter, most probably a few tens of kilometers from Haluza. This supposition is based on the fact that short-period seismic waves, which tend to be destructive to low structures (which have short-period harmonic frequencies), attenuate at short distances from the epicenter.

[1] Note by Jefferson Williams : While Amiran et al (1994) is one of the error prone catalogs, 749 A.D. refers to well attested earthquake.
The Sign of the Prophet Quake should also be considered as a possible cause for this seismic damage. Thus, archeoseismic evidence for the Sign of the Prophet Quake at Haluza is labeled as possible.

Tsunamogenic Evidence

Paleoseismic Evidence

Paleoseismic Evidence for this event is summarized below:

Location Status
al-Harif Syria possible
Bet Zayda possible
En Feshka possible - 1 cm. thick folded seismite
Taybeh Trench possible
Qatar, Jordan no evidence


Each site will now be discussed separately.

Displaced Aqueduct at al Harif, Syria

Sbeinati et. al. (2010) report a seismic event Y which they dated to 657 AD +/- 33 years at a dispalced aqueduct at al-Harif, Syria (close to Masyaf, Syria).

Al Harif Aqueduct Seismic Events
Figure 13. Correlation of results among paleoseismic trenching, archaeoseismic excavations, and tufa analysis. In paleoseismic trenching, the youngest age for event X is not constrained, but it is, however, limited by event Y. In archaeoseismic excavations, the period of first damage overlaps with that of the second damage due to poor age control. In tufa analysis, the onset and restart of Br-3 and Br-4 mark the damage episodes to the aqueduct; the growth of Br-5 and Br-6 shows interruptions (I) indicating the occurrence of major events. Except for the 29 June 1170 event, previous events have been unknown in the historical seismicity catalogue. The synthesis of large earthquake events results from the timing correlation among the faulting events, building repair, and tufa interruptions (also summarized in Fig. 12 and text). Although visible in trenches (faulting event X), archaeoseismic excavations (first damage), and first interruption of tufa growth (in Br-5 and Br-6 cores), the A.D. 160–510 age of event X has a large bracket. In contrast, event Y is relatively well bracketed between A.D. 625 and 690, with the overlapped dating from trench results, the second damage of the aqueduct, and the interruption and restart of Br-3 and onset of Br-4. The occurrence of the A.D. 1170 earthquake correlates well with event Z from the trenches, the age of third damage to the aqueduct, and the age of interruption of Br-4, Br-5, and Br-6. Sbeinati et. al. (2010)


Al Harif Aqueduct Radiocarbon
Figure 12. (A) Calibrated dating of samples (with calibration curve INTCAL04 from Reimer et al. [2004] with 2σ age range and 95.4% probability) and sequential distribution from Oxcal pro-gram (see also Table 1; Bronk Ramsey, 2001). The Bayesian distribution computes the time range of large earth-quakes (events W, X, Y, and Z) at the Al Harif aqueduct according to faulting events, construction and repair of walls, and starts and interruptions of the tufa deposits (see text for explanation). Number in brackets (in %) indicates how much the sample is in sequence; the number in % indicates an agreement index of overlap with prior distribution. Sbeinati et. al. (2010)


Bet Zayda

In paleoseismic trenches just north of the Sea of Galilee (aka Lake Kinneret), Wechsler at al. (2014) Event CH3-E1 is a possible candidate.

Bet Zeyda Earthquakes
Figure 9. Probability density functions for all paleoseismic events, based on the OxCal modeling. Historically known earthquakes are marked by gray lines. The age extent of each channel is marked by rectangles. There is an age uncertainty as to the age of the oldest units in channel 4 (units 490-499) marked by a dashed rectangle. Channel 1 refers to the channel complex studied by Marco et al. (2005).


En Feshka

Kagan et. al. (2011) assigned a 634 CE date (Sword in the Sky Quake) to a 1 cm. thick folded seismite at a depth of 172 cm. It is possible this was caused by the Sign of the Prophet Quake.

Arava

Taybeh Trench, Jordan
LeFevre et al. (2018) might have seen evidence for this earthquake in the Taybeh Trench (Event E3).

Taybeh Trench Earthquakes
Figure S5: Computed age model from OxCal v4.26 for the seismic events recorded in the trench


Qatar, Jordan
Klinger et. al. (2015) did not identify any seismic events which could fit with the timing of the Sign of the Prophet Quake.

Qatar Trench
Figure 6. Age model computed for the trench stratigraphy using OxCal v4.2 (Bronk-Ramsey et al. 2010) and IntCal13 calibration curve (Reimer et al. 2013). Light grey indicates raw calibration and dark grey indicates modelled ages including stratigraphic information. Phases indicate subsets of samples where no stratigraphic order is imposed. Klinger et al (2015)

Notes

Paleoclimate - Droughts

Footnotes

References

Ambraseys, N. (2009). Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East: a multidisciplinary study of seismicity up to 1900. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

al-Bayhaqi, The Proofs of Prophethood (aka The signs of prophethood aka Dala'il al-Nubuwwah)

al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din (K), Kashf al-salsala ’an wasf al-zalzala, ed. Abd al-Latif Sa’adani, Fez, 1971. Also B: BM MS Or. 5852, 1768; P: BNP MSS Ar. 5929, 1706; C: Cairo NM MS N324; CB: Cambridge Or. 8.172, 1760; L: Lahore BM Opuscula 14521.c.37, 1890; for a recent translation into Russian see Buniyatov (1983). Also Husn al-muhudara fi akhbar Misr wa‘l-Qahira, ed. Cairo, 1882.

Khasais al kubra by Imam Suyuti

al-Da’udi, continuator of al-Suyuti, in Kashf al-salsala, pp. 62–64; also al-Hafiz (1982).

al-Ghuzzi, al-Najm; continuator of al-Suyuti, in al-Hafiz (1982).

al-Hafiz, Muhammad Muti’, Nusus ghayr manshura ’an al-zalazil, BEO 32 and 33 (for 1980–81), Damascus, 1982, pp. 256–264.